By Dr. Peter Backhaus
"Linguistic Landscapes" is the 1st complete method of language on symptoms. It offers an updated assessment of earlier learn, introduces a coherent analytical framework, and applies this framework to a pattern of indicators accumulated in Tokyo. "Linguistic Landscapes" demonstrates that the examine of language on symptoms presents a different study point of view to city multilingualism.
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Additional info for Linguistic Landscapes: A Comparative Study of Urban Multilingualism in Tokyo (Multilingual Matters)
Within the survey areas the signs of each second business were counted. It was further determined that, if an area contained fewer than ﬁve businesses, every business was to be counted. If there were more than 25 businesses in the area, only every fourth business was counted. The eventual number of businesses recorded amounted to over 3100. Another problem to be solved was the determination of countable items. All signs had to belong to shops or other businesses in the streets and be visible from outside.
Both on the individual and on the societal level the situation in the Senegalese capital is highly multilingual. The majority of the population speak Wolof, which coexists with the ofﬁcial language French, Arabic as the language of religion, and several minority languages exclusively used within the family. These minority languages are predominantly spoken by migrants recently moved to the city, whose proﬁciency in Wolof and French is lower than that of people born in Dakar. Wolof has acquired characteristics of a ‘language of integration’, while French is considered the ‘language of power’ (Calvet, 1994: 208).
Ben-Rafael et al. (2004: 17; 2006: 14) make a basic distinction between ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ ﬂows of linguistic landscape components. The former notion refers to signs issued by the state or by central bureaucracies, while ‘bottom-up’ signs are signs set up by autonomous actors such as shop owners, companies, or other private enterprises. The two types of signs reveal different characteristics of language use with regard to the respective research areas. While there is no recognisable difference between bottom-up and top-down ﬂows in the Jewishdominated locations, the survey areas mainly inhabited by Israeli Palestinians show a rather unexpected trend.