A Dictionary of Science, Fifth Edition by John Daintith

By John Daintith

This best-selling dictionary includes over 9,000 entries on all features of technological know-how and offers entire assurance of biology (including human biology), chemistry, physics, the earth sciences, and astronomy. Appendices conceal the periodic desk, geological time scale, and animal and plant type. New positive aspects comprise digital thumb tags for simple reference, multiplied parts together with astronomy and earth technology and extra positive factors on key issues reminiscent of the sun method and Genetically transformed Organisms. additionally featured are brief biographies of prime scientists and chronologies of particular topics, together with plastics, electronics and cellphone biology. either concise and wide-ranging, this dictionary is a perfect convenient reference paintings and nice advent for college kids and non-scientists alike.

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The chemical is applied to plates inoculated with a special mutant strain of bacteria, usually Salmonella typhimurium, and cells that mutate back to the wild type are detected by the occurrence of colonies able to grow on the medium. amethyst The purple variety of the mineral *quartz. It is found chieÛy in Brazil, the Urals (Russia), Arizona (USA), and Uruguay. The colour is due to impurities, especially iron oxide. It is used as a gemstone. amides 1. NH2 (the amide group). Compounds containing this group are primary amides.

Solvents, such as water, that can both donate and accept protons are usually described as amphiprotic (see solvent). ampliÜer A device that increases the strength of an electrical signal by drawing energy from a separate source to that of the signal. The original device used in electronic ampliÜers was the *triode valve, in which the cathode–anode current is varied in accordance with the lowvoltage signal applied to the valve’s control grid. In the more recent *transistor, the emitter–collector current is controlled in much the same way by the signal applied to the transistor’s base region.

Under basic conditions, they often convert to alkynes. In an allene, the two double bonds lie in planes that are perpendicular to each other. Consequently, in an allene of the type R1R2C:C:CR3R4, the groups R1 and R2 lie in a plane perpendicular to the plane containing R3 and R4. Under these circumstances, the molecule is chiral and can show optical activity. allergen An antigen that provokes an abnormal *immune response. Common allergens include pollen and dust (see allergy). allergy A condition in which the body produces an abnormal *immune response to certain *antigens (called allergens), which include dust, pollen, certain foods and drugs, or fur.

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